Cut off from food supplies and with public support decidedly against the mutiny, Parker issued threats that the ships under his control would be handed over to the French government. This too ended in disaster, with twelve ships lost and thousands of men drowned in fierce winter gales. "[23], Aware that the escape of the Dutch fleet into the North Sea at such a vulnerable time could be disastrous for Britain, Duncan maintained position off the Texel for three days during which the wind was ideal for a Dutch foray, and he disguised his two vessels as different ships on each day and ordered the frigate HMS Circe to make a flurry of nonsensical signals to a fictitious British fleet beyond the horizon. WikiMatrix. [74] Firing rockets in the hope of attracting attention from any of Duncan's ships, Williams was rewarded at 22:30 by the arrival of Beaulieu. en She served at the Battle of Camperdown and during the Napoleonic Wars. The Battle of Camperdown. [12] Tensions in the fleet had been gradually rising since the start of the war, and in February 1797, anonymous sailors from the Channel Fleet at Spithead sent letters to their former commander Lord Howe, soliciting his support in improving their conditions. "[96] but some of the highest praise came from his erstwhile opponent, De Winter, who wrote that "Your not waiting to form line ruined me: if I had got nearer the shore and you had attacked, I should probably have drawn both fleets on it, and it would have been a victory for me, being on my own coast. [1] Shortly afterwards, the British fleets were paralysed by the Spithead and Nore mutinies, in which the sailors refused to take their ships to sea until they were awarded better pay and conditions. Map depicting Duncan's attack on the Dutch line. When a sailor stepped forward, Duncan seized him by his shirt and dangled him over the side of the ship with one arm crying, "My lads - look at this fellow - he who dares to deprive me of command of the fleet!" Although Camperdown was considered the greatest ever victory for a British fleet over an equal enemy force to that date,[42] historian Noel Mostert has noted that it "was a battle that, with posterity, somehow lost rank and significance against the greater and more romantically glorious events that followed". Eventually only the Dutch flagship remained in combat. Many of the worst wounded were stoical beyond belief; they were determined not to flinch and, when news of the shattering victory was brought down to them, they raised a cheer and declared they regretted not the loss of their limbs. Mark this image as a favourite. Find art you love and shop high-quality art prints, photographs, framed artworks and … Military conflicts similar to or like Battle of Camperdown Major naval action fought on 11 October 1797, between the British North Sea Fleet under Admiral Adam Duncan and a Batavian Navy (Dutch) fleet under Vice-Admiral Jan de Winter. [45] The Dutch line of battle was accompanied by a second line to the east, formed from ten frigates, brigs and smaller craft. Duncan's men were also better trained and more experienced than their Dutch counterparts, having spent considerably longer at sea and having been taught to fire three rounds a minute to the Dutch two. The Dutch admiral replied "What do you think about it? The Navy had expanded from 134 ships at the start of the conflict in 1793 to 633 by 1797,[Note 2] and personnel had increased from 45,000 men to 120,000, an achievement possible only as a result of the impressment service, which abducted criminals, beggars and unwilling conscripts for compulsory service at sea. . In early 1797, after the French Atlantic Fleet had suffered heavy losses in a disastrous winter campaign, the Dutch fleet was ordered to reinforce the French at Brest. For the next 24 hours the 66-year-old Duncan remained on duty without a break, organising the scattered fleet on its journey home. Bullen offered a place in the first rescue boat, from Veteran, to Heilberg, but the Dutch officer refused, gesturing to the immobile wounded who had been brought onto the maindeck as the lower decks had flooded and replying "But how can I leave these men?". [74], Two other prizes were lost to the British fleet: Monnikkendam had been supplied with a prize crew of 35 men from Beaulieu, but had become separated during the gales and lost its remaining masts and spars. [66], Dutch casualty returns, particularly on the captured ships, were vague, and only partially complete. The weather was poor, with heavy seas and strong wind from the southeast broken by frequent rain squalls,[33] but this did not prevent hundreds of Dutch civilians gathering on the dunes to watch the impending combat.[41]. The battle split into two melees, one to south, or leeward, where the more numerous British overwhelmed the Dutch rear, and one to the north, or windward, where a more evenly matched exchange centred on the battling flagships. The battle became a popular theme for contemporary artists and many paintings depicting it are held in National collections in the United Kingdom, including paintings by Thomas Whitcombe and Philip de Loutherbourg in the Tate Gallery,[98][99] Whitcombe, Samuel Drummond and Daniel Orme at the National Maritime Museum,[100][101][102] and George Chambers, Sr. and John Singleton Copley at the National Gallery of Scotland. This was attributed to the Dutch tactics, mirrored by the British, of firing at the enemy hulls rather than attempting to disable their masts and rigging as in other continental navies. In 1795 the Dutch Republic had been overrun by the army of the French Republic and had been reorganised into the Batavian Republic, a French client state. [8], Although the sailors of both fleets fought hard, they were suffering from popular unrest; the mutinies in Britain continued to overshadow the Royal Navy, while the Dutch sailors were unhappy with French dominion and, in marked difference to their officers, were generally supporters of the exiled House of Orange. . [73] Although the prize court took several years to determine the prize money that would be awarded for the battle, the initial estimates of £60,000 (the equivalent of £5,550,000 as of 2021)[80] proved pessimistic: Duncan and his men were eventually awarded £150,000 (the equivalent of £13,874,000 as of 2021),[80] although they were forced to defend a claim from the Russian Navy on behalf of the squadron that had reinforced Duncan in May. All the prizes were immediately relegated to harbour duty, and none were used for front-line service. [58] Russell, driving northwards to join the attack, encountered the now extinguished Hercules, whose crew had thrown all of their ammunition overboard during the fire to prevent the ship exploding. When this letter was later published it provoked a storm of criticism in Britain, one officer describing it as "a garbled account which, for ought I know, might have been collected by people on shore who knew nothing of the action. . The Battle of Camperdown was an important naval action of the French Revolutionary Wars, fought off Camperduin on the North Holland coast on 11 October 1797 between a British fleet under Admiral Adam Duncan and a Dutch fleet under Vice-Admiral Jan de Winter. The Battle of the Camperdown (Kamperduin) took place on the 11th … Captured at 14:00 but subsequently wrecked on the Dutch coast, This page was last edited on 5 July 2020, at 19:29. [108] In Dundee, the Battle of Camperdown is commemorated at Camperdown House, originally the Dundee seat of the Viscounts Camperdown, which was completed in 1828 and later became a public park and tourist attraction. [58] In an attempt to settle the combat, Captain William Bligh of Director closed to within 20 yards (18 m) of the Dutch flagship and demanded to know if De Winter surrendered. [7] Both sides suffered heavy casualties during the battle as each fleet had been trained to aim at the hulls of their opponents, maximising the damage to personnel. [78] Five decades later the battle was among the actions recognised by a clasp attached to the Naval General Service Medal, awarded upon application to all British participants still living in 1847. Admiral Bloys van Treslong had sailed for the coast off Hinder with two brigs, and there on 13 October the 40-gun British frigate HMS Endymion under Captain Sir Thomas Williams found him. [107], The Royal Navy has commemorated the battle through the ships bearing the names HMS Camperdown and HMS Duncan, which have maintained close links with Duncan's hometown of Dundee. The French then reorganised the country as a client state named the Batavian Republic, and it joined France against the allies in the War of the First Coalition. "[93] A popular rhyme of the time reflected public feeling: "St Vincent drubbed the Dons, Earl Howe he drubbed Monsieur,And gallant Duncan now has soundly drubbed Mynheer;The Spanish, French and Dutch, tho' all united by,Fear not Britannia cries, My Tars can beat all three.Monsieurs, Mynheers and Dons, your country's empty boast,Our tars can beat all three, each on his native coast. The battle of Camperdown. The rendezvous never occurred; the continental allies failed to capitalise on the Spithead and Nore mutinies that paralysed the British Channel forces and North Sea fleets during the spring of 1797. [64] Many of the British ships were badly damaged, taking on large quantities of water through damaged hulls. To conquer he calculated upon the brave example he set his captains, and the event justified his expectation. [72] Aboard the Dutch ships, the situation was especially dangerous. He was a trusted subordinate of Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland between 1806 and 1810, and was honoured by Emperor Napoleon in 1811 before his sudden death in Paris the following year. During a brief period replenishing supplies at Yarmouth, news reached Duncan on 10 October that the Dutch had sailed on a raiding cruise and he returned to the Dutch coast, intercepting de Winter's fleet on its way back to the Texel. The location of the main anchorage of the Dutch fleet in the waters off the Texel prompted a reorganisation of the distribution of British warships in Northern European waters, with a new focus on the importance of the North Sea. [75] The other captured frigate, Ambuscade, was also driven ashore in a sinking state and the prize crew made prisoner, but in that case the ship was salvaged and later returned to Dutch service. The battle was the most significant action between British and Dutch forces during the French Revolutionary Wars and resulted … These attacks were accompanied by fire from HMS Monmouth, which passed between Alkmaar and Delft and raked both ships and from HMS Director (under William Bligh of Bounty fame), which passed up the Dutch line until it reached the battered Haarlem, engaging the ship at close range. [61] Instead he ordered his ships to ensure control of their prizes and to return to Britain. When he saw the enemy, he rushed upon him without thinking of such and such and order of battle. Listed in the casualties section are the totals of killed and wounded as best as can be established: due to the nature of the battle, Dutch losses were hard to calculate precisely. [52] In the Batavian Republic, there were also recriminations against those officers who were deemed to have failed in their duty: De Winter's despatch from London after the battle placed much of the blame with six ships that had failed to follow his orders and had withdrawn early from the battle. The British frigates, their quarry having escaped, returned to Duncan's struggling fleet. [68] Gold medals were created and presented to the captains and both Houses of Parliament voted their thanks for their victory. In the midst of these agonising scenes I was able to preserve myself firm and collected . [70] Nevertheless, the effects of the action on the wider war were hugely important. [84] At the conclusion of the trial on 1 January 1798, Williamson was found guilty of the first charge and not guilty of the latter, resulting in demotion to the bottom of the post captains list and prohibition from further naval service. The battle was tactically inconclusive, with both armies holding their ground and claiming vic [32] Having failed to make the rendezvous off the Maas, De Winter then turned to the northwest, cruising off Lowestoft in Suffolk and again unsuccessfully attempting to drive away Trollope's squadron. The squadron under my command are unmoored and I shall put to sea immediately. (New Series), https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/20939/page/, http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ViewWork?workid=16133&searchid=22589, http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ViewWork?workid=3722&searchid=22589, http://www.nmm.ac.uk/mag/pages/mnuExplore/PaintingDetail.cfm?ID=BHC0506&letter=A&search=Camperdown, http://www.nmm.ac.uk/mag/pages/mnuExplore/PaintingDetail.cfm?ID=BHC3100&letter=D&search=Camperdown, http://www.nmm.ac.uk/mag/pages/mnuExplore/PaintingDetail.cfm?ID=BHC0505&letter=B&search=Camperdown, http://www.nationalgalleries.org/collection/online_az/4:322/result/0/37814?initial=C&artistId=6286&artistName=George%20Chambers%20senior&submit=1, http://www.scran.ac.uk/database/record.php?usi=000-000-258-560-C, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/tayside_and_central/7888225.stm, http://www.camperdownpark.com/general.htm, http://site.eurosurf.com/camperdown/house.htm, "On naval history, with strictures on Captain Brenton's work", http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=8vgbAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA146&dq=%22Captain+John+Williamson%22+1799&cd=6#v=onepage&q=%22Captain%20John%20Williamson%22%201799&f=false, http://books.google.com/books?id=LCRy8AHxwrYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Edward+Pelham+Brenton&cd=1#v=onepage&q=Boston&f=false, http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~pbtyc/Naval_History/Vol_II/Contents.html, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Camperdown?oldid=4403810, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, "They say they are going to make a Lord of our Admiral. A British fleet defeated the Dutch, who were then allied with the French. In a speech to his men, he announced that "The soundings are such that my flag will continue to fly above the water after the ship and her company have disappeared. Monarch was almost immediately followed by HMS Powerful under Captain William O'Bryen Drury, which passed through the same gap, raked Haarlem again and poured a destructive fire into the wallowing Monnikkendam. A plan was formulated to merge the French and Dutch fleets and attack Ireland together in the summer of 1797. [76] Duncan was also given a pension of £2,000 a year by the government, made a freeman of numerous towns and cities and was subject to presentations from numerous patriotic societies, particularly in Scotland, where he was awarded valuable plate by both his birth city of Dundee and the county of Forfarshire. In the centre of the picture, in starboard-quarter view, is Duncan's flagship the 'Venerable', 74 guns in action with the Dutch Vice-Admiral J. W. de Winter's 'Vrijheid', 74 guns, shown to port. [103][104] In literature, the battle has played a central role in the 1968 novel Sea Road to Camperdown by Showell Styles,[105] and the 1975 novel The Fireship by C. Northcote Parkinson. As he did so, the Dutch frigate Monnikkendam and the brig Daphné pulled out of the second line and attempted to fill the gap Monarch had created, firing into the British ship of the line as they did so. [54] Duncan had originally intended to break the line between Vrijheid and the next ship Staaten Generaal under Rear-Admiral Samuel Story, but Story ensured that there was no gap between his vessel and the flagship to break through, and their combined fire was so dangerous to the advancing Venerable that Duncan instead cut through behind Staaten Generaal, raking Story's ship twice and causing it to drift off in confusion as Duncan engaged Vrijheid from the east. [19] The following week he assembled all of the men and demanded to know whether they would follow his orders: in response the crew nominated a spokesman, who apologised for their actions, saying "we humbly implore your honour's pardon with hearts full of gratitude and tears in our eyes for the offense we have given to the worthiest of commanders who has proved a father to us". On October 11th 1797, Admiral Duncan's North Sea Fleet of 18 vessels trounced the Dutch fleet of 23 warships at Camperdown. Powerful and Director were the quickest to respond, joining the attack on Vrijheid at 14:00. So close was the action that the British ships found themselves at risk of firing into one another in the high seas, heavy rain and poor visibility. The Battle of Camperdown, 11 October 1797 Off the coast of Holland, near Camperdown, on 11 October 1797, the British fleet defeated the Dutch, aligned with the Revolutionary French. News then arrived that the Dutch fleet under De Winter was preparing to sail, and Duncan's fleet was ordered by Lord Spencer to blockade the Dutch coast. 186 relations. [62] The British admiral did find time however to play a game of whist in his cabin with De Winter after dinner: when the Dutch admiral lost a rubber, he commented that it was hard to be beaten twice in one day by the same man. Sank during journey to Britain with the loss of an additional 34 lives. [69], On Venerable, Duncan assembled all of those men fit to attend for a church service to "return thanks to Almighty God for all His mercies showered on them and him." The Battle of Camperdown, October 1797 is a painting by Franciscus Wram which was uploaded on September 25th, 2018. Agincourt had been barely engaged in the battle and had suffered not one single casualty. Attacking the Dutch line of battle in two loose groups, Duncan's ships broke through at the rear and van and were subsequently engaged by Dutch frigates lined up on the other side. [32] His fleet consisted of 16 ships of the line and a number of smaller support craft, and his orders from The Hague included instructions to remember "how frequently Dutch Admirals have maintained the honour of the Dutch flag, even when the enemy's forces were sometimes superior to theirs. battle of Camperdown. [21] Duncan was informed that his fleet at Yarmouth might be ordered to attack the mutineers and although reluctant, responded that "I do not shrink from the business if it cannot otherwise be got the better of". [90] The destruction of the Dutch fleet at Camperdown was also a serious blow to French ambitions to invade Ireland, and denied their Atlantic fleet of essential reinforcements; it may even have played a part in Napoleon Bonaparte's decision to abandon efforts to attack Britain directly early in 1798. [45] De Winter gave urgent orders for the van and centre to drop back to assist the rear, but there was little time and his situation looked desperate: although the Dutch and British lines each mustered 16 ships, the British vessels were almost all larger and more strongly built than their Dutch counterparts and their crews were experienced seamen in the heavy weather conditions while the Dutch crews, confined to port for the previous year, had little understanding of the skills required in combat at sea. [50] The straggling HMS Veteran joined the northern part of the engagement, cutting across Jupiter and then turning in pursuit of the Dutch centre, while Adamant reached the fight late, joining the attack on the already battered Haarlem. [39] Duncan intended to follow Lord Howe's manoeuvres at the Glorious First of June three years earlier and bring each ship through the Dutch line between two opponents, but the Dutch formation and proximity to the shore rendered this plan impractical. Throughout the year the British Admiral Adam Duncan had been stationed watching the Dutch fleet in Den Helder. Although Camperdown was considered the greatest ever victory for a British fleet over an equal enemy force to that date, historian Noel Mostert has noted that it "was a battle that, with posterity, somehow lost rank and significance against the greater and more romantically glorious events that followed". With the Navy suffering severe shortages in men and equipment and with other theatres of war deemed more important, small, old and poorly maintained ships were activated from reserve and based in harbours in East Anglia, principally the port of Yarmouth, under the command of Admiral Adam Duncan. Local boats came out to the stranded vessel and all aboard were saved, the 35 British prisoners taken to a prison hulk at Flushing. At the start of October, Duncan was forced to return to Yarmouth for supplies and De Winter used the opportunity to conduct a brief raid into the North Sea. [4] The Dutch formed a line of battle in shallow coastal waters to meet Duncan's attack, which was conducted in a confused mass, the British fleet separating into two groups that struck the vanguard and rear of the Dutch fleet,[5] overwhelming each in turn and capturing eleven ships, including de Winter's flagship Vrijheid. The Battle of Camperdown (known in Dutch as the Zeeslag bij Kamperduin) was a major naval action fought on 11 October 1797, between the British North Sea Fleet under Admiral Adam Duncan and a Batavian Navy fleet under Vice-Admiral Jan de Winter. [65] One of the worst hit was Venerable, which had to be completely dismantled and reconstructed after returning to Britain before the ship was ready for active service again. The Battle of Camperdown, 11 October 1797. None of these ships was ever in sufficient condition for service in open waters: the damage suffered at Camperdown proved too severe for them to be fully repaired. The flagship Venerable fires its last broadside at the Dutch Vryhied. fr Il combat à la bataille de Camperdown et durant les guerres napoléoniennes. It shows the later part of the action with De Winter's totally dismasted Dutch flagship 'Vrijheid' in the centre still exchanging broadsides with Duncan's 'Venerable', centre right. [109] The bicentennial of the battle was celebrated in Dundee in 1997 with the "Glorious Victory" exhibition at the city's McManus Galleries in conjunction with Camperdown House and the National Museum of Scotland. At 16:30, Endymion closed with the larger, but damaged, Dutch ship and opened fire, Brutus responding with a broadside of its own. In addition to the losses in the rear, five ships of the Dutch van had been captured as well as the frigate Ambuscade that had attacked from the second line. [58] Duncan did not follow them: the Dutch coast between Kamperduin and Egmond was only 5 nautical miles (9.3 km) away, his ship lay in just 9 fathoms (18 yards (16 m)) of water and the weather was too fierce and his ships too battered to risk combat in shoal waters. [43] At 11:00 Duncan sought to remedy increasing gaps between his vessels by ordering the faster ships to slow down and wait for their compatriots. "[44], The combined effect of Duncan's orders was to split his fleet into two uneven divisions, each sailing in a loose formation towards the unified Dutch line. 93 Dutch prisoners had been removed, and among the remaining Dutch sailors were 76 wounded men. As a result, gaps had opened up between his van, centre and rear, leaving the last four ships greatly outnumbered and unsupported. The winds subsequently changed direction and on 10 June six more ships joined Duncan's squadron from the Channel Fleet and on 13 June a Russian squadron arrived. Unable to reach Duncan's flagship, the King instead rewarded the fleet as a whole by pardoning 180 men condemned for their role in the Nore Mutiny and held aboard the prison hulk HMS Eagle in the River Medway. [72] The prize crew left on the second rescue boat sent from Russell, and Bullen and Heilberg waited for a third trip to bring them off with the remaining 30 wounded men and three junior Dutch officers who had also elected to stay. [15] For a month the fleet remained at stalemate, until Lord Howe was able to negotiate a series of improvements in conditions that enabled the strikers to return to regular service. WikiMatrix. [54], The Battle of Camperdown, Philip de Loutherbourg, 1799, Tate Gallery, Following Onslow's victory over the Dutch rearguard, the admiral ordered the least damaged of his ships to sail in support of the outnumbered British ships in the melee at the Dutch van. ", Although Duncan's initial tactics at the battle were reminiscent of those of Howe at the Glorious First of June, and his eventual attack has been compared to Nelson's tactics at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805,[41] Duncan credited the tactical work Essay on Naval Tactics by John Clerk of Eldin for inspiring his decisions on the day. [68], All of the captured Dutch ships were bought into the Royal Navy, Gleijkheid, Vrijheid, Wassenaar, Haarlem and Alkmaar under their own names (although in most cases they were anglicised) and Admiraal Tjerk Hiddes De Vries as the simpler Devries. About this artwork. [45] This force was aiming for the Dutch flagship Vrijheid, which lay fifth in the Dutch line. 11 th October 1797 Part of : The Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780 - 1784) Previous action : Patriot vs Cameleon 13.8.1781 Next action : Retaking of the Crash 11.8.1799 ; Batavian Republic - Jan Willem de Winter (1761-1812) Dutch Fleet, Jan Willem de Winter (1761-1812) Ship Name Commander Notes; Name : Gelikheid (68) H. A . Captured at 13:15, later became HMS, Hull severely damaged and ship dismasted in the immediate aftermath of the battle. During the fight, Burges' men "fought like maniacs", including the wife of one of the gunners who insisted on joining her husband at his gun, until her legs were torn off by cannon fire. "Biographical Memoirs of Adam Duncan, Lord Viscount Duncan". Das Kunstwerk The Battle of Camperdown on 11th October 1797 - Petrus Johann Schotel liefern wir als Kunstdruck auf Leinwand, Poster, Dibondbild oder auf edelstem … [85] Several officers were brought up on charges, including Admiral Bloys van Treslong who was convicted at court-martial and dismissed the service although later reinstated, and Commander Souter of Batavier who was convicted and imprisoned. [42] To compensate, Duncan signalled for his ships to form line and sail southeast on the port tack so that they had the wind directly behind them. The 64 gun Ardent under Captain Richard Burgess was the first to engage the enemy flagship the Vrijheid. [73], The Delft, captured in the early stages of the battle, was under the command of the Dutch Lieutenant Heilberg and the British Lieutenant Charles Bullen, with a small prize crew of 69 men. Commander Johan Ferdinand Dumesnil de l'Estrille, Captured but later driven ashore on the Dutch coast and retaken by Dutch forces, Badly damaged. 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